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Admiral’s Club – Maritime Security Forum

CONFERENCE “THE DYNAMICS AND COMPLEXITY OF ROMANIA’S MARITIME SECURITY”

Abstract of scientific papers Panel 1

IN EDITING

Resilience in NATO’s new strategic concept. Implications for the Black Sea-AUTORS: Prof. PhD. Niculae Iancu, I2DS2, Maritime University of Constanta and Prof.PhD. Gabriel Raicu, Maritime University of Constanta
Abstract: The concept of resilience stands at the core of the NATO 2022 Strategic Concept. Brussels strategists adopt resilience as “the first line of deterrence and defence”, thus becoming an integral part of the Alliance’s first core task. Moreover, the concept acquires the valence of a common value, apart from the traditional framework of national sovereignties. “Collective Resilience” opens up a wide range of opportunities for joint investment in technological innovation and brings non-military issues such as human security and climate change onto NATO’s agenda. These fundamental changes in the security paradigm and military doctrine should produce effects in all operational domains – land, air, naval, space or cyber – and in all strategic directions, including the Black Sea region. Russian military aggression against Ukraine and overlapping non-military economic, health, food, humanitarian and climate crises have turned the Black Sea region into a security “hotspot”. Transatlantic security and the international system’s stability intrinsically depend on this region’s stability. That is, the allied presence in the Black Sea region must increase significantly in terms of military and investment. Strength resilience in all sectors is an essential component of NATO’s presence in the region to contribute to deterrence and defence effectively.

GOVERNANCE AND MARITIME SECURITY – THE EUROPEAN UNION’S APPROACH – Author: PhD. Eng. ROȘU Marius

Abstract: Determined by the desire to maintain and affirm European civilization, at the European Council management level there appeared the idea to create the conceptual and action premises for Europe ad integrum to represent a “maritime power”. The Integrated Maritime Policy (IMP) is a comprehensive approach to all EU maritime and related policies. In practice, the Integrated Maritime Policy is the European Union’s response to the sustainable implementation of maritime governance, a concept in which maritime security plays a key role.

  1. The Black Sea Security Triangle: NATO, Russia, EU: What role for Romania?-Author: RAdm(LH) (rz) PhD. Constantin CIOROBEA

Abstract: This article aims to analyze the evolution of the security environment in the Extended Black Sea Region starting with the accession of the first states of the region to NATO and the EU until now. The paper seeks to detail the current state of the regional security environment, dominated by the conflict in Ukraine and the complex dynamics of NATO-Russia-EU contradictory interests, by Turkey’s actions in order to become a regional power with international influences, and the desire for cooperation and sustainable development of the states in the region. Security challenges in the Black Sea region are analyzed, starting from Russia’s military build-up and harmful influence, to destabilizing actions in the field of energy, as well as the shocking invasion of Ukraine, all of which are interconnected and inextricably linked to the wider context of Euro-Atlantic security. Finally, it seeks to identify actions needed to strengthen security in the region, such as strengthening deterrence and defense posture, designing stability and working with partner countries in the region. Romania’s role as a supporter of a substantial presence of the alliance in the region and actions for the development of access, stationary, training and active coordination capabilities of forces, as well as supporting the strengthening of NATO and EU support for the Eastern Neighborhood Partner States.

Key words: Extended Black Sea Region, regional security environment, conflict in Ukraine, Russia’s harmful influence, strengthening deterrence and defense posture, designing stability

THE INCREASE OF ROMANIA’S NAVY POWER – A POSSIBLE ANSWER TO THE “MILITARIZATION” OF THE BLACK SEA-Author: dr.eng. Munteanu Valentin

Abstract: This paper deals with a current, important and complex topic. The importance of the scientific approach undertaken is given by the changes in the security environment after the annexation of the Crimean Peninsula in 2014 and the invasion of Ukraine by the Russian Federation in 2022, and implicitly the emergence of new hybrid and non-hybrid risks and threats in the Black Sea region. The complexity derives from the scope that the study of global maritime security can have while the regional security environment is evolving towards unpredictability.

Keywords: Black Sea, maritime security, hybrid threat, naval power, maritime power

  1. CIVIL-MILITARY COOPERATION IN SECURIZING THE MARITIME ROUTES IN THE CURRENT SECURITY CONTEXT-Author: IULIAN ANGHEL

Abstract: The last decades have seen a flourishing development of maritime activities, especially shipping, which have become essential elements for the economic development of the world’s states, the prosperity of populations and regional and local stability throughout the world. Recent developments in the field of maritime security have unfortunately been marked by a wide range of unfortunate events, from an increase in the number of organised crime incidents, to shipping accidents, to problems of illegal migration, to the resurgence of piracy and the dangers of sea mines or collateral casualties in conflict zones. All of these threaten the backbone of world trade and, by extension, global security itself. Most stakeholders in the vast maritime domain, including civilian and military actors, have over time developed strategies and policies to respond to the main issues affecting maritime security, very often independently. The main problem with this approach is the impossibility for a single actor to effectively and comprehensively manage issues that are often trans-boundary, cross-cultural and do not necessarily follow a single underlying ideology. As a result, the focus for solving maritime security problems has shifted strongly into the sphere of cooperation between stakeholders, through sharing lessons learned, through joint and coordinated efforts, through making relevant information available, through mutual understanding and assistance. The present paper aims to probe the subject of civil-military cooperation as a solution to reduce these veritable 21st century maritime security plagues, by identifying those strings that present the best opportunities for timely and effective cooperation, as well as analysing the current state of play in the field of civil-military cooperation.

  1. THE ROLE OF ROMANIAN NAVY FORCES IN THE CONTEXT OF THE CONFLICT BETWEEN RUSSIA AND UKRAINE-Author: Adrian DINCĂ

Abstract: After the outbreak of the armed aggression of the Russian Federation against Ukraine, the missions carried out by the Romanian Naval Forces in the area of responsibility, both maritime and fluvial, have been approached from a broader perspective, adapted to the specificity and complexity of the security challenges in the Black Sea region. Thus, part of the national and multinational exercises, as well as other specific training activities were replaced or complemented by real surveillance and research actions carried out with ships, aircraft and shore-based sensors belonging to the structures specialised in this field. The Romanian Naval Forces have also played and continue to play a significant role in the management and transmission of mine threat information in the Black Sea basin, both through its specialised structure, the Maritime Hydrographic Directorate, and through cooperation and exchange of information with MARCOM (Allied Maritime Command) and operations centres in other member countries of the North Atlantic Alliance. The paper approaches from an analytical and argumentative perspective a brief radiography of the main actions carried out by the Romanian Naval Forces after the Russian invasion in Ukraine, with the main objective of highlighting the importance of equipping its naval forces with modern techniques and equipment in the context of geopolitical changes and security challenges in the Black Sea Region, the magnitude and devastating effects of which have not had a counterpart since the end of the Second World War. Although not new, Romania needs now more than ever to strengthen its maritime and river military capabilities. The dynamics and the multi-faceted nature of the security challenges in the Black Sea Region require a credible and flexible force structure, whose potential and responsiveness ensure the defence of Romania’s sovereign rights and interests in the Black Sea and the river area, as well as contributing to the implementation of measures to ensure regional stability, in accordance with the commitments undertaken in the allied or coalition framework.

Key words: security, surveillance, mines, blockade, Ukraine

  1. ECONOMIC OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES IN THE MARITIME FIELD FOLLOWING RUSSIAN INTERVENTION IN UKRAINE-Author: Alexandru URSU

Abstract: In this article, which is addressed both to those interested in the evolution of the current security environment in which we find ourselves, and to specialists in the field who can contribute to improving national security, both from a maritime and economic/food point of view, I have proposed to make an analysis of the influence on economic security that the intervention of the Russian Federation in Ukraine has on Romania and on the maritime sector in our country. I also intended to highlight the interests that Romania should pursue as a result of this conflict, to identify and formulate conclusions that can be benchmarks in the approach from the maritime point of view of our economy in the short and medium term and that could have as a finality to exploit the opportunities that the current geopolitical context offers us. We have thus outlined possible courses of action which, if followed, could ultimately lead to an effective contribution to national security and to the development of Romania’s status as a maritime and economic power.

Keywords: maritime, naval, economic, Russia, Ukraine, implications, intervention.

  1. CONSEQUENCES OF THE RUSSIAN-UKRAINIAN CONFLICT IN THE BLACK SEA AND THE SEA OF AZOV-Author:SORIN PRICOP

ABSTRACT: The present paper proposes to identify some of the consequences of the Russian-Ukrainian conflict in the naval field, which may constitute risks and/or threats to the security of Romania and other NATO states in the medium and long term. For this purpose, some aspects related to the naval field have been studied and presented online by Romanian public authorities, national and international press. The research methods used in this paper are specific to the field of military sciences: observation of the field, description of facts, analysis and formulation of judgements. This article is addressed in particular to specialists within the Romanian Naval Forces (either active, retired or in reserve) and to those interested in naval analysis.

KEYWORDS: Russian Black Sea Fleet, Russian-Ukrainian conflict, consequences, Sea of Azov, Russian lake.

  1. SPECIFIC PARTICULARITIES OF TACTICAL ACTIONS IN THE SEA AREA NEAR THE COASTAL-Author: dr.eng. Valentin – Marian TOMA

Abstract: In this article I have proposed to analyze some specific features of the combat in the maritime space near the coast, features that are also found in the conflict in the northern part of the Black Sea between the Russian Federation and Ukraine. In naval tactical actions specific to coastal combat, a number of challenges arise from the environment (size of the area of operations, depth of the coastal areas, coastal configuration, maritime traffic) and the enemy’s mode of action. Modern missile launch systems used for coastal defence, autonomous unmanned vehicles, shoreline jamming systems, fast surface ships carrying missiles, sea minesweepers, fighter-bomber aircraft and submarines pose immediate and continuous threats against enemy surface ships. It is known that most naval operations have taken place close to the coastline, often involving all categories of forces in a concerted response effort to defend sea lanes of communication. We established as a research hypothesis that naval forces through specific tactical actions remain the main response tool in case of a threat from the sea. The main objective of this paper is to highlight the need for the continued development of capabilities that can respond in a timely and effective manner to threats to the security environment in the near-shore maritime space.

Keywords: security environment, area of operations, autonomous unmanned vehicles, sea mines, naval tactical actions, fighter-bomber aviation, jamming systems, communication pathways.

  1. DEFINITIONS OF THE WEIGHT CENTRE – BETWEEN EVOLUTION AND INTERPRETATION – Author: Cristian ABAIANIȚI

Abstract: The complexity and importance of what is meant by centre of gravity is reflected in the quality of preparation and understanding of phenomena describing armed conflicts characterized by continuous change due to the evolution of the geostrategic scene. Although it is continually debated and stated, the role exercised by it impacts on the effort of a campaign or operation to achieve the objectives necessary to achieve the desired end state. In this article, we will highlight some definitions of the centre of gravity as they have been referred to in both the literature and military doctrine, as well as interpretations of these definitions as they relate to the effects that the existence or non-existence of a centre of gravity may have.

Keywords: centre of gravity, schwerpunkt, strengths/weaknesses, critical capabilities, critical requirements, critical vulnerabilities.