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Admiral’s Club – Maritime Security Forum

CONFERENCE “THE DYNAMICS AND COMPLEXITY OF ROMANIA’S MARITIME SECURITY”

Abstract of scientific papers Panel 2

IN EDITING

Panel II- Under editing
Are România nevoie de un concept al Securității Maritime la nivel național? AUTOR: Cam. fl. (Rtg.) dr. Ion CUSTURĂ

Abstract:  My article intends to highlight the importance of adopting such a document at the highest national levels, which can launch one more time in our history the national intrests related to maritime and riverine domains and can issue appropriate plans to gain the advantage of exploiting the ”golden eggs hen” offered by Black Sea, Danube river and world ocean access. This can give the opportunity of a huge development of all activities related to maritime and riverine domains contributing to an important maritime and riverine domains resilience of a lot of economic national branches, starting with maritime trade, maritime and riverine infrastructure, naval shipyards building  new merchant and military fleets, and so on. In spite of many approaches related to Maritime Security concept especially those issued by”big maritime actors” with big intrests in maritime domains, and no consent in adopting a common definition, we should be inspired by their achievements in this regard and adjust properly their findings to our national interests and realities issueing our own concept. The concept has many ties with other so far well accepted concepts such as National Security, Human Security, Marine Environment, Sea Power, Maritime Strategy, Marine Safety, Blue Economy, Resilience. Looking to this new geostrategic and geopolitical situation in the Black Sea Region, given to the Russian- Ukrainian war, it is obviously that we should take into account all the consecvencies and lessons learned from this war and a possible aggression of Russia against us, even we are part of  powerful organizations as NATO and UE. Definig the concept from a romanian perspective and identifying its components and connections is the main goal of our Maritime Security Forum. 

Keywords: Maritime Security, Maritime/ Riverine National Intrests, Maritime/ Riverine Domains Resilience, Merchant and Military Fleets, Black Sea Region, Russian- Ukrainian War, Maritime Security Forum.

Rezumat: Articolul meu intenționează să scoată în evidență importanța adoptării unui astfel de document la cele mai înalte niveluri naționale, care pot lansa încă odată în istoria noastră însemnătatea intereselor naționale legate de domeniul maritim și fluvial și care poate genera planuri adecvate pentru a exploata această adevărată ”găină cu ouăle de aur” oferită de Marea Neagră, fluviul Dunărea și accesul la oceanul planetar. Aceasta ar putea oferi posibilitatea unei dezvoltări imense a tuturor activităților legate de domeniul maritim și fluvial, contribuind la o reziliență deosebită a acestui domeniu și a ramurilor economice naționale, incepând cu comerțul maritim, infrastructura maritimă și fluvială, construcțiile în șantierele navale a noilor flote comerciale și militare etc. În ciuda faptului că există mai multe abordări, mai ales cele ale ”marilor actori”cu interese deosebite în domeniul maritim” referitoare la conceptul de Securitate Maritimă, fără să existe consens în adoptarea unei definiții comune a acesteia, noi putem să ne inspirăm din aceste abordări și să le utilizăm adecvat la interesele și realitățile noastre naționale pentru a adopta propriul nostru concept. Acest concept are multe legături cu alte concepte accepate până acum cum ar fi Securitatea Națională, Securitatea Individuală, Mediul Marin, Puterea Maritimă, Strategia Maritimă, Siguranța Maritimă, ”Economia Albastră”, Reziliența. Având în vedere această nouă situație geopolitică și geostrategică din Regiunea Mării Negre generată de războiul ruso- ucrainian, este evident că va trebui să luăm în considerație toate consecințele și învățămintele trase din acest război precum și o posibilă agresiune a Rusiei împotriva noastră, chiar dacă facem parte din cele două puternice organizații NATO și UE. Definirea conceptului din perspectiva românească și identifcarea componentelor și conexiunilor acestuia constituie principalul obiectiv al Forumului Securității Maritime.

Cuvinte Cheie: Securitate Maritimă, Interese Naționale Maritime/ Fluviale, Reziliența Domeniului Maritim/ Fluvial, Flota Comercială și Miltară, Regiunea Mării Negre, Răzoiul Rusiei cu Ucraina, Forumul Securității Maritime.


THE INFLUENCE OF CRISIS SITUATIONS ON CARGO TRANSPORT AND PORT ACTIVITY. Authors: Conf.dr.eng. Alexandru COTORCEA, Conf.dr.eng. Filip NISTOR, Prof.dr.eng. Florin NICOLAE

Abstract: Freight transport plays a very important role in global logistics and national economies. In this context, the emergence of influencing factors such as economic crises, health crises or armed conflicts can lead to major regional or even global imbalances. This paper deals with the influence of such crisis situations on cargo traffic and port activity in the Constancy area. Thus, the port of Constanta, which benefits from an advantageous geographical location, being situated on the pan-European Rhine-Danube transport corridor, can play a major role in the European intermodal transport network and can benefit from an accelerated development in the context of the need imposed by various crisis situations. The analysis takes into account the impact of the 2008 economic crisis on the demand for maritime transport and the trade imbalances created, the effects of the Covid-19 pandemic on the port of Constanța and European ports, as well as the impact, challenges and opportunities generated by the armed conflicts in Romania’s neighbourhood in terms of transit of goods.

Key words: crisis situations, port activities, cargo transport.

  1. TRENDS IN THE TRAINING OF CIVILIAN NAVAL OFFICERS. Authors: Conf.univ.dr.ing. NISTOR Filip, Conf.univ.dr.ing. POPA Adrian

Abstract: Global transport has been facing important changes for at least three decades as it adapts to Industry 4.0 and must rapidly transition to low carbon fuels. For the maritime industry, Industry 4.0 represents the combination of new digital technologies with operational automation and the development of autonomous ships in the future. Issues such as carbon and sulphur emissions, alternative fuels and ship recycling contribute to the maritime dimension of the European Green Deal and support the blue economy. Taking all these issues into account is likely to significantly change the role, skills and competences needed by seafarers and even the workplace. The nature of work on board ship will change, with a focus on multi-skilled personnel trained to do interventions on board ship or in ports. The paper presents trends in the training of civilian maritime officers taking into account the dynamics of the changes taking place in shipping. Maritime education has a defining role in linking the training of future naval officers to new labour market requirements.

Key words: seafarers, shipping, maritime education.

4.MARITIME SECURITY VULNERABILITIES RISKS THREATS TO MARITIME AND PORT SECURITY. Author: ZAVERGIU Nicolae

Abstract:

  1. THE CHILDREN’S NAVY SCHOOL AND ITS LEADERS (1881-1939). Author:Prof.dr. Adrian ILIE

Abstract: The beginning of naval education in Romania is linked to the establishment, in Galati, of the Naval Children’s School, an institution intended to prepare the country’s future sailors. In 1881, on October 3, by High Decree no. 2,408, this school was born, which received students between the ages of 12 and 15, with three years of schooling. The school initially trained only soldiers with lower ranks (corporals, sergeants, non-commissioned officers). Until 1904, it will carry out its activity in this form, and later it will transform into the Naval School of Military and Specialty Foremen. Its first commander was Captain Ilie Irimescu, who, according to the provisions of High Decree no. 2408 of October 3, 1881, which approved its establishment, equivalent to the lower high school (gymnasium), was also a teacher of Seamanship and Helmsmanship, and the sub-director, Captain Emanoil Koslinski. Among the first staff of the School we can mention Major Mihail Drăghicescu, who became commander of the School and professor of Navigation, Water Science, Astronomy, Seamanship, Nomenclature and Infantry. Based on Decree no. 2213 of May 14, 1920, on June 13, 1920, the Maritime Institute was established in Constanța, which included, as its first stage, along with the School of Specialty Instructors and the School of Naval Officers, the School of Naval Children, with the duration of three years. The Naval Children’s School, the first level of the Maritime Institute, operated until 1928. The Maritime Institute had three levels: the Naval Children’s School (three years), the Special Instructors’ School (one year) and the Naval Foremen and Sub-Foremen School ( 3 years).

Keywords: Naval Children’s School, Mate and Helmsmanship, Navigation, Maritime Institute, cadets

JEL classification: B

  1. EUROPEAN UNION MARITIME STRATEGY – CASE STUDY – OPERATION IRINI. Author: Daniel GHEORMA

Abstract: This article analyzes the action lines of the European Union Maritime Strategy that are reflected in the maritime interdiction operation Irini, key elements to understand the level of ambition and interests promoted by this organization in support of ensuring Euro-Atlantic maritime security. The article is addressed to specialists within the Romanian Naval Forces, master students, students and those who are concerned with the doctrinal field, representing a research direction on Romania’s maritime strategy. In the content of the article, I highlight aspects concerning threat deterrence, collective defence, crisis management and maritime security, respectively risk management, conflict prevention and crisis response, which highlights strategic visions in terms of ensuring Euro-Atlantic and international maritime security. We have noted that the EU’s orientation is towards regional maritime cooperation for the development of regional security communities in the main Euro-Atlantic sea basins and is at the heart of the process of making Euro-Atlantic and international maritime security more effective by exploiting the opportunities and vulnerabilities of each individual sea basin.

Keywords: Euro-Atlantic maritime security; maritime security strategies; regional cooperation.

  1. CONSIDERATIONS ON THE MAINTENANCE AND MODERNISATION OF ROMANIAN NAVY SHIPS. Author: Eng. Vlad-Nicu ZAHARIEA

ABSTRACT: The aim of this research is to make an analysis of the potential of the national defence industry and the maritime industry to perform under current security conditions the maintenance and modernization of Romanian navy ships. In this sense, in order to substantiate the research of the chosen element, I propose a brief analysis of the national capabilities related to equipping ships with naval equipment and modern armament, repairing platforms to extend the resource and ensuring their maintenance throughout their life cycle. On the basis of the elements analysed, it is possible to identify solutions and applicable measures to improve the process of carrying out maintenance and modernisation of ships at national level by reducing dependence on international actors.

KEYWORDS: maintenance. modernisation, ships

  1. Strategies for the internationalisation of naval military education – a component of military diplomacy. Authors: Prof. Dr. Cătălin Popa, Eng. Marius Cucu

Abstract: International military relations are complexly determined both by the strategic and political framework of cooperation and by the dynamics of diplomatic relations in a volatile geostrategic and geopolitical context, with relevance and impact at regional, European and trans-Atlantic level. In the framework of military cooperation at the level of the European Union and NATO, the educational component plays an important role, being a relevant vector for the process of harmonising training standards for military personnel in all its dimensions: competences, skills and professional autonomy, leading to the conceptual and operational integration of joint actions in the field of defence. In this context, this paper aims to disseminate the most effective methods and tools through which higher military education institutions can contribute to the promotion of international military cooperation policies, directly by stimulating the academic process of internationalisation, which is extremely beneficial for the promotion of higher standards in the harmonised training of military personnel, in line with technical, technological and operational requirements at European and international level.

Key words: internationalisation, higher education, international relations, military diplomacy

  1. THE BLACK SEA IN GERMAN STRATEGIC PLANNING OF THE EASTERN CAMPAIGN (1941-1944). PERSPECTIVES ON THE COALITION WAR. Author: dr. Dan-Dragoș SICHIGEA Abstract: In the preparations for the Eastern Campaign in 1941, the Black Sea played a peripheral role in the vision of the Wehrmacht planners. On the one hand, the contradictions that affected the German command at the highest level contributed to the underestimation of the role played by shipping on the southern flank. On the other hand, they overestimated the ability of land forces to occupy the seaboard and thus all the important bases of the future adversary, thus making the need for an Axis fleet in the Black Sea irrelevant. The present study looks primarily at the German planners’ vision for the southern flank, as reflected in official documents. It also considers the consequences of the decisions taken in 1941.Keywords: Germany, Romania, naval warfare, Black Sea, World War II
  2. CONSIDERATIONS ON THE PREDICTION OF THE SINKING/BURIAL OF SEA MINES. Authors: CSIII Dr. Petrică POPOV, Ing. Nina-Camelia SANDU

Abstract: The progress achieved in the field of research and characterization of coastal areas from hydrographic, oceanographic, topogeodetic and meteorological points of view, can contribute to the improvement of models related to the specific mechanisms of complex processes of sinking/burial of submerged marine objects, and in particular of sea mines. These models are essential tools for the conduct of naval operations as they can be used to forecast the variability of oceanographic parameters in the coastal zone that have a particular impact on mine countermeasures (MCM) activities, with the possibility to process large volumes of data and provide them as useful parameters for MCM planning and decision making. With the use of complex oceanographic datasets, it is essential that MCM operators receive advanced training to understand the processes specific to the marine environment using specific oceanographic data processing methods and tools. From this perspective, it should be borne in mind that marine mines offer a great advantage by allowing the control of operational areas close to shore by channelling, blocking, diverting, disrupting or delaying opposing forces, thus preventing them from achieving their objectives. Mines can also jeopardise the steady flow of goods, equipment and fuel needed to support air and ground forces operations ashore.

Keywords:mine action, marine environmental factors, mine burial, predictive models

  1. MARINE INFANTRY BETWEEN OPTION AND NECESSITY IN THE ARMY 2040 CONCEPT. Author: Elvis HUIAN

ABSTRACT : Global geopolitical complexity and military conflicts in different regions of the world, including the European one, have changed the way military capabilities are employed and how armed combat is conducted. The emergence of cyber and space environments have complicated the geometry of the battlefield as well as the decision-making process of political-military leaders. The Marines, by modernising existing capabilities, accelerating their acquisition programmes and adopting new concepts of warfighting, can become the rapid reaction force needed to engage in combat in environments that are complicated or contested by potential aggressors. The aim of the paper is to highlight the need to transform the Marine Corps from a purely defensive capability, with a role in the defence of Romania’s coastal zone, into a modern capability that can respond much better to security challenges, especially in the current context of the war between Russia and Ukraine.

  1. MILITARY NAVAL EDUCATION IN A EUROPEAN PERSPECTIVE. Authors: Prof. Mihaela ENE, Patrick-Ionuț OTTI

Abstract: This paper addresses a current and still insufficiently researched topic, which could be of interest to both young people and adults, students of Romanian military universities and teachers alike, namely the current trends in naval education and its prospects. More specifically, this paper investigates military naval education in Romania, putting the spotlight on maritime education, its aims, objectives and trends at national and global level. At the same time, the paper will also contribute to the shaping of the profile of the future naval military officer, who will successfully integrate into the European and world navy. In order to achieve these two major objectives, this work has also sought to achieve specific objectives in each sub-chapter, which could be classified as theoretical. In order to provide a pertinent approach to naval education, predominantly qualitative research methods were used, based on articles and books in Romanian and English. At the same time, a comparative analysis of bibliographical material was used in this research, with the aim of identifying possible models of the officer in the European Navy of the future. By analysing the trends of the military naval education and outlining a profile of the ideal European officer, this paper will be a reference for future officers of the Romanian Naval Forces.

Key words: naval education, military education, maritime education, trends, European perspective, naval officer

  1. THE WAR IN UKRAINE – PARALLELS AND PREDICTIONS FOR THE CRISIS IN THE REPUBLIC OF CHINA (TAIWAN) Author: Sorin COADA ABSTRACT:
  2. SEAFARING TRAINING BETWEEN TRADITION AND NEED FOR TRAINING. Authors: S.L.univ.dr.eng. CRISTEA Ovidiu, Conf.univ.dr.ing. BURLACU Paul

Abstract: The recent events between Ukraine and Russia show once again to the world that peace is not eternal and that states must have trained armies at national and allied level. War has changed and will continue to change, which will lead to changes in the way personnel are trained. With all systems tending to become automated, even autonomous for different missions, it behoves us to investigate how much of the old training objectives can be preserved for the future. The article addresses the issue of the evolution of maritime training for ANMB students – future naval officers. It presents the current state of naval training for military students and possible future directions so as to remain at a level of training in line with NATO partners but also with the requirements of current and future threats.

Keywords: Higher education, marine training, alignment, tradition;

  1. DIGITIZATION OF THE TEACHING AND RESEARCH INFRASTRUCTURE OF THE NAVAL ACADEMY “MIRCEA CEL BĂTRÂN” – AN IMPERATIVE PROCESS IN THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE CONCEPT OF MODERNIZATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF MILITARY NAVAL EDUCATION IN THE PERIOD 2021-2026 AND IN PERSPECTIVE UNTIL 2030. Authors. ATODIRESEI Dinu, Conf.univ.dr.ing. TOMA Alecu, Conf.univ.dr.ing. BURLACU Paul

Abstract: Taking into account the general objectives and directions of action established in the Conception of Modernization and Development of Education in the period 2021-2026 and in perspective until 2030, at institutional level the needs for modernization of digital infrastructure have been identified to ensure the necessary conditions for learning through simulation and digitization of the educational process. These steps were materialized by submitting the project “Digitization of the teaching and research infrastructure of the Naval Academy “Mircea cel Bătrân” (DigiANMB)”, code F-PNRR-GDU-1-2022-0039, within the PNRR, component C15 – Education, Investment Measure – “Digitization of universities and their preparation for the digital professions of the future” and its acceptance for funding with a score of 92.5 p. The proposed solution is an integrated and optimized one that brings together four levels of development (1. Centralised educational and digital infrastructure at ANMB level; 2. Teaching and research skills and infrastructure by bachelor and master degree programmes; 3. Training of teaching and research staff and teaching assistants in digital competences; 4. Training of undergraduate and master students in digital competences)

Key words: digitalisation, education, research, infrastructure, modernisation concept

  1. TRAINING THROUGH SIMULATION JOINT LEVEL. THE CASE OF THE “MILLENNIUM CHALLENGE 2002” EXERCISE
    OF THE UNITED STATES ARMED FORCES
    . Author: Mugurel POPA

ABSTRACT: Simulation training exercises, war games, experiments, bring remarkable benefits to the armed forces, if the databases are faithfully, realistically built and tested, the conditions for conducting the exercises, as little as possible affected by the real situation in the field (area of operations – unaltered at the tactical/operational level) and the belligerents are allowed to act freely (but according to the rules of armed conflict and the special conditions in the Area of Operations). Through simulation exercises, concepts can be tested, vulnerabilities or opportunities can be identified that can be put into practice, exploited in order to obtain favourable, valid courses of action. The Millennium Challenge 2002 experiment was a major wargaming exercise conducted by the United States military in mid-2002. The experiment involved both LIVE exercises and computer simulations and was meant to be a test of future military transformation – a transition to new technologies that enable network-centric warfare and provide more effective command and control of current weapons and tactics and future. The simulated combatants were the United States, called “Blue,” and a fictitious Persian Gulf state, called “Red,” often characterized as Iran or Iraq. In the first phase of the conduct of this exercise, only 2 days after its start, by using an asymmetric strategy, in particular using outdated methods of evading the sophisticated surveillance network of the “Blue” and old but creative tactical methods of combat used with skill to opponent, “Red” destroyed no less than 16 warships including an aircraft carrier, the equivalent success in a real conflict would have led to the death of over 20,000 soldiers. Although the exercise took place with a series of constraints and limitations that could affect the quality of the simulation results, such a defeat shocked the military community in particular, the results of the exercise being classified for the next 10 years. It should be mentioned that the exercise took place only 1 year after the attacks on the USA known as 9/11. Thus, after 10 years, upon declassification, it turned out that the exercise was resumed, modified, with both sides being ordered to follow predetermined action plans. The rule changes after the restart led to accusations that the war game had turned from an honest, open and free-play test of US war-fighting capabilities into a rigid, artificially rigged exercise designed to gamble on victory overwhelming the US, thus wasting approximately $250M – the most expensive simulation exercise in the history of the US military. Consequently, from the perspective of the present conference, the analysis of this exercise conceptually reiterates the use of simulators for training in order to refine the tactics/procedures/techniques of the Naval Forces, for the timely identification of opportunities and their use in battle, in accordance with the doctrine of own strength.

Keywords: Millennium Challenge 2002, simulation training, war games, simulators for NAVY, lessons identified.

  1. S-100 – THE NEW INTERNATIONAL HYDROGRAPHIC ORGANISATION STANDARD FOR MARITIME GEOSPATIAL DATA AND INFORMATION. Author: RADIAN TRUFAȘU

Abstract: The International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) is an intergovernmental advisory body and technical organization established in 1921 to support the safety of navigation and to contribute to the protection of the marine environment. One of its main roles is to establish and maintain appropriate standards to facilitate the correct and efficient use of hydrographic data and information. Standard S-100 – Universal Hydrographic Data Model was adopted by the International Hydrographic Organisation on 1 January 2010. Other international associations, commissions and groups have been involved in the development of this standard, such as: International Association for Marine Aerodynamic Applications (IALA), Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC), Harmonization Group for Electronic Navigational Charts of Inland Waters (IEHG), the Joint Technical Commission for Oceanography and Marine Meteorology, the International Electrotechnical Commission and the NATO Geospatial Maritime Information Working Group (GMWG). The S-100 standard is the cornerstone for the future development of national hydrographic offices and other institutions with responsibilities in the regulation and management of ship traffic.

  1. HYBRID THREATS IN THE MARITIME DOMAIN. Author: Adrian SBARCEA